Children with Kidney Disease: An Overview of Pediatric Primary Nephrotic Syndrome
Pediatric primary nephrotic syndrome in children represents a group of glomerular diseases characterized by edema, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and dyslipidemia. The disease process is often complex and labile, entangled with frequent hospitalizations and clinical complications. Its clinical complications are extensive and require careful evaluation and monitoring. Frequent complications include thromboembolism, infections, hypertension, acute kidney injury (AKI), and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Various pharmacologic agents are used to treat children with this group of glomerular diseases, aiming to preserve kidney function and prevent chronic kidney disease. Pediatric primary nephrotic syndrome is a life-altering diagnosis that is linked with poorer health-related quality of life and implicated in negative impacts on social and emotional functioning for those affected by the disease. Pediatric nurses play a key role in addressing physiologic presentations and complications of the disease, including edema and hypertension; moreover, pediatric nurses should aid in providing appropriate educational support to patients who are afflicted by such convoluted disease processes and their families.